The Kingdom of Poland had the largest concentration Jews in eastern Europe and a liberal policy towards them that engendered cultural and political movements of all sorts. Hasidic courts flourished despite the opportunities of modernization, yet modernizing maskilim similarly established institutions that influenced Jewish society in a completely different direction. Later came integrationism, Zionism, Jewish socialism, and cultural autonomy. The resulting ferment was a critical factor in shaping the modern Jewish experience.
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